Normal - a value for BMD statistically within 1 standard deviation of the young adult peak bone mass. The report shows a T-score within +1 and -1, signifying a BMD within the normal range
Low Bone Mass (Osteopenia) - A value for BMD greater than 1 stndard deviation, but less than 2.5 standard deviations below that of an average young adult. The report will show a T-score between -1 and -2.5, which signifies an increased fracture risk, but does not meet the criteria for osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis - A value for BMD of 2.5 or greater standard deviations below that of the average peak young adult bone mass. BMD in this range signifies an even higher fracture risk than osteopenia. The report shows a T-score of -2.5 or lower.